Surrey BC, Prolotherapy Clinic


Osmotic Proliferants (Solutions)

Osmotic proliferant solutions are the most commonly used proliferants and include dextrose and glycerin. These are injected and cause a higher osmotic (concentrated) gradient outside of the cells than inside of the cells. This causes cells to lose water and break. These broken cell particles stimulate an influx of inflammatory cells and initiate the wound-healing cascade to the specific area. Osmotic proliferants are water-soluble and thus, very safe. Being water-soluble means that whatever the body does not need is excreted out in the urine and is not stored in the fatty tissue of the body. Other proliferants in this class include the minerals zinc, calcium, and manganese. The minerals are also cofactors for various enzymes. For instance, manganese is needed for the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which helps the antioxidant status of the body. Since some people believe arthritis is from oxidative damage, some Prolotherapists, including Dr. Badesha use manganese in the solution for arthritic patients.


These are substances that are known to directly alter the proteins on the surfaces of the cells. They act by attaching themselves or their byproducts to the surfaces of the cells at the injection sites and they either damage the cells directly or render them reactive to the immune system. In either case, the immune cells are attracted to the area and start the immune response. The irritants that are used most commonly in Prolotherapy include dextrose, phenol, guaiacol, tannic acid, sarapin and plasma QU (quinine, urea).


The most common particulate proliferant used is pumice flour. These small particles on the order of one micron, are notable for their ability to attract macrophages, which immediately phagocytize (eat up) the particles. Once the macrophages are at the injection site and ingesting pumice granules, they are actively secreting polypeptide growth factors, which ultimately result in collagen tissue growth.


Chemotactics are proliferants that directly attract the immune cells to the injured area. Sodium morrhuate is thought to work in this way. Sodium morrhuate is the sodium salt of the fatty acid component derived from cod liver oil. Cold water fish oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid. These compounds serve as the direct precursors to inflammation mediators. In this way, Sodium Morrhuate may directly attract the immune system to the area. Sodium morrhuate most resembles Sylnasol, one of the first proliferants ever used in Prolotherapy.

Growth Factors

Growth factors represent the future of Prolotherapy. As modern medicine makes advances in the regenerative mechanisms of the human body, many new growth factors are being discovered. Their effects are being tested as they directly stimulate the repair of various cells, organs, and diseases. Polypeptide growth factors act directly upon fibroblasts (which make collagen). Epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factors, fibroblast growth factors, and platelet-derived growth factors are now available for research and testing purposes. Physicians are already using Growth Hormone injections directly into joints to help regenerate cartilage. Many of these growth factors are available in homeopathic form to be taken orally during the Prolotherapy treatment course. As medical research continues, it is most assuredly certain that these growth factors will be incorporated into the technique of Prolotherapy.